To address protection, however, is to address the question of our responsibility and role when confronted with violence, in the context of healthcare. Has this question been settled once and for all within MSF? In order to provide elements for a reply, the study looks at the practices and discourse, both past and present, employed by MSF (headquarters, field teams, individuals) when faced with situations of violence affecting either the population in general, or the people we assist. It analyses our discourse on responsibility - discourse which has inevitably evolved with the changes in our work environment, particularly states' international actions. The study also tries to identify the constancies within our practices. Three case studies are presented in the appendices.